Maryam Jahanzad, Graduate Researcher, Pennsylvania State University
Guha Manogharan PhD, Assistant Professor, Pennsylvania State University
Applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in biomedical applications have been ever-growing and include: custom prosthetics, orthopedic and dental implants, bio-printing of scaffolds and custom jigs for surgeries. The ability of AM to fabricate highly complex geometries directly from CT or MRI scan using bio-compatible materials without the need for custom tooling has been shown to improve quality of life of patients. For instance, incorporation of lattice structures to promote osseointegration is feasible only through AM. While applications of AM in aerospace and mechanical applications have been well-documented based on categories, materials, service conditions, certification and quality standards, there is a critical need to examine the current state of AM in biomedical applications. This study presents a comprehensive review of documented applications of AM orthopedic implants around the world using case-studies and categorizes the current state of AM-made implants based on: orthopedic joints, patient group, material, design considerations, AM processing and surgical considerations. In addition, challenges associated with advancing the use of AM in biomedical implants are highlighted based on research findings and AM processing characteristics. Finally, this study highlights the current trends in AM orthopedic implants based on research efforts, industry developments and observations by regulatory agencies using case-studies.