The ability of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes to fabricate complex geometries is somewhat hindered by an inability to effectively validate the quality of printed complex parts. Furthermore, there are classes of part defects that are unique to AM that cannot be efficiently measured with standard Quality Control (QC) techniques (e.g., internal porosity). Current QC methods for AM are limited to either destructive evaluation of printed test coupons, or expensive radiation-based scanners of printed parts for non-destructive evaluation.
In this work, the authors describe their use of impedance-based structural monitoring to indirectly measure printed part abnormalities. By bonding a piezoceramic (PZT) sensor to a printed part, the measured electrical impedance of the PZT can be directly linked to the mechanical impedance of the part. By observing deviations in the mechanical impedance of the part, as determined by this quick, non-intrusive electrical measurement, one is able to detect the existence of part defects through the fundamental measurement of the part’s mass, stiffness, and dampening. In this presentation, the authors demonstrate the use of this technique for identifying defects in both polymer (fabricated by material extrusion and material jetting processes) and metal (fabricated by direct metal laser sintering and electron beam melting) parts. The results are used to explore the effectiveness and sensitivity of the technique as a means for detecting of a variety of defect types and magnitudes.
- Define and evaluate a variety of destructive and non-destructive evaluation techniques for evaluating the quality of printed parts.
- Describe the presenter’s novel non-destructive, impedance-based analysis approach to detecting part defects.
- Describe the capabilities of the proposed impedance-based monitoring approach with respect to both defect type/size and Additive Manufacturing process/material.